International Law

Main information

International Law is broad and diverse: this briefing aims to give an overview of the different areas of work, jobs, skills and ways to start to gain experience. We take as a principle that ‘international law’ refers to either public or private international law as areas of practice: this briefing does not cover being a qualified lawyer overseas.
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Traditionally, this deals with the law governing relations between nations, although since the rise of human rights acts now also concerns how states treat their own citizens.  This area includes:
  • International Human Rights Law, International Environmental Law
  • International Trade Law
  • International Boundary Disputes, Law of the Sea
  • International Criminal Law
  • Law of Armed Conflicts

Employers include:

  • National governments (e.g. the Government Legal Service)
  • Intergovernmental organisations (e.g. United Nations, European Union, Council of Europe),
  • International Criminal Tribunals and Courts
  • NGOs (e.g. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, JUSTICE, Friends of the Earth)
  • Private law firms with a public international law practice area (Chambers’ top ranked firms: tinyurl.com/k35r5qk)
  • Armed Services
  • Academia

PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW / INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LAW

Traditionally, this deals with the legal issues which arise in cross-border transactions between individuals, corporations and organisations (sometimes this is referred to as ‘conflict of laws’).  This area includes:

  • Taxation, Financial Securities and Banking Law
  • Business Arbitration, Trade Transactions, Corporate Governance and Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)
  • Intellectual Property and Competition Law
  • International Arbitration

To find potential employers, search for firms with relevant practice areas (e.g. ‘M&A’ or ‘International Arbitration’) on www.chambersandpartners.com.

PUBLIC/PRIVATE DIVIDE?

In an increasingly globalised world, the division between public and private international law is increasingly blurred.  Top corporate law firms describe their public international law practices as serving the relationship between nation states and private corporations (for example in investor-state dispute or advisory work). Lawyers increasingly take their skills with them as they move between the public and private areas of work, with many training in the private sector at the start of their career.

TYPES OF JOB

Law Fair - people on scales of justice
ACADEMIA

Researching, publishing and teaching, having studied higher degrees (usually a doctorate) in an international law specialism.

LAWYER

A practicing solicitor/barrister (or attorney outside of the UK) working in relevant practice areas to international law.

PARALEGAL / LEGAL ASSISTANT

Supporting lawyers in their work, such as drafting documents and collecting, analysing and summarising information. Could go on to study as a Chartered Legal Executive to become a ‘fee earner’, or pursue qualification as solicitor/barrister.

PROJECT OFFICER/ASSISTANT

Working within an organisation with a link with international law, often an NGO or intergovernmental body.  Providing administrative, project management or field work support to a project which relates to the field, not working in a legal capacity. Projects could range from awareness campaigns to research work, to direct support for beneficiaries (e.g. refugees).

SUPPORT ROLES

Every organisation, whatever their cause or values, has a range of support roles, which keeps everything working smoothly: from finance, to marketing, to HR, to IT, to senior management.  Direct-entry roles exist within most organisations to support these departments.

CASEWORKER

Providing similar support roles to a legal assistant in some cases, but usually also face-to-face advice for clients (e.g. prisoners, immigrants and asylum seekers).

POLICY ADVISOR/ANALYST

Working in an organisation with a remit for advocacy – seeking to question, analyse and propose solutions to policy and political agendas.

SKILLS NEEDED

Skills will vary depending on the exact job, but common attributes which are sought in job postings include:

  • Strong professional skills, such as research, drafting, advocacy.
  • Flexibility and adaptability (either to work in a firm which also serves other practice areas, or, in a different role, to work in less hospitable regions)
  • Strong cultural awareness to function within a multi-national environment
  • Language skills are an asset, particularly for intergovernmental organisations who often require proficiency in their working languages, e.g. French and English for the UN

ENTRY POINTS

Statuette of justice
There is no one route in to a career in international law, and it’s worth remembering that there are roles for those who are not qualified lawyers too, particularly in supporting functions within the same employer, which can be more instantly attainable.

REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRY

To work as a public international lawyer you will usually need:

  1. Qualification as a lawyer in a legal jurisdiction
  2. Relevant language skills
  3. Relevant international experience (e.g. an overseas seat as part of a training contract, YPP programme,a traineeship with an intergovernmental body and possibly more experience too.)

A Masters-level law degree (e.g. LLM, BCL or MJur) in a relevant area can be helpful, particularly for academic or EU roles, but this can be substituted for by relevant professional experience for those that move later into these areas.
To work as a private international lawyer you will usually need:

  1. Qualification as a lawyer in a legal jurisdiction
  2. Relevant experience with an international practice area (e.g. relevant seats during your training contract)
  3. Relevant language skills, if required

QUALIFYING AS A LAWYER

Full details are available within our advice for Solicitor or Barrister routes, but it’s worth pursuing international law options where you can: if you’re taking a law undergraduate degree at Oxford, the final year option of public international law, or other related topics such as International Trade, European Human Rights Law, EU Law would be advised. If you don’t have a legal undergraduate degree, research your GDL course providers to see which allow you to take international law options in addition to the compulsory subjects. If you don’t have an undergraduate degree, a masters degree in law is likely to be particularly beneficial when competing against those educated in lengthier legal training.
Your LPC (solicitors) or BPTC (barristers) is the next step in your training, followed by a training contract (solicitors) or pupillage (barristers).  This stage of qualifying is unlikely to be as highly specialised around your interests, as very few chambers take on only human rights cases, for example, and you will be required to work in different practice areas for your training contract.  This provides a solid base in law, which can provide a good ‘fall back’ option while looking for international law roles more suited to your interests, post qualification. However, it also means that an interest in the law itself, not just the cause, is essential. Remember, if working on other areas of law isn’t something that will motivate you, it might be worth considering working in the field, but not as a lawyer (look for vacancies in project support, communications, policy, and research to explore other ideas).

LLM OR EQUIVALENT

A LLM degree (or equivalent legal Masters-level course) is sometimes sought for public international law roles. However, it’s worth remembering that those who wish to work as lawyers will usually pursue their initial legal qualification and work to develop excellence in their professional work first, and then might choose to return for LLM study later in their career.  This allows more time to develop as a professional and gain experiences which will enhance your learning, and crystallise professional interests which could inform the choice of masters course itself.   If you choose to take an LLM, it worth researching funding options and scholarships available, for example the Hauser Scholars Programme provides funding for 10-14 students to undertake legal masters courses (and also 2 research scholars) at New York University School of Law.

GETTING EXPERIENCE

This section illustrates some potential sources of internships and work experience. Vacation schemes and mini pupillages are also available in UK law firms and chambers, and these are not listed here.

  • Also see our related information for work experience advice for other sectors, e.g. Solicitors, Barristers, International Organisations, Charities and Government and Public Administration.
  • Remember to save your search for work experience and internships on CareerConnect to receive email alerts (you might also want to explore the archive too).

INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS

PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

  • www.mountbatten.org One year’s paid experience and study in New York/London aimed at fostering cross-cultural business understanding. Not law specific.

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCATIONS

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs)

ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS

LOCAL VOLUNTARY WORK IN OXFORD

  • gettingheard.org – Joint charity made up of Oxford Advocacy and SEAP – advocacy volunteering opportunities
  • www.law.ox.ac.uk/opbp/volunteer – Graduate law volunteering at Oxford through the Law Faculty’s Pro Bono Publico programme.
  • www.law.ox.ac.uk/themes/ola – Oxford Legal Assistance, for undergraduate law students, applications open in Trinity term each year.

FUNDING FOR WORK EXPERIENCE

There is often confusion about whether you should be paid to do an internship or work experience. It will depend on your arrangement with the employer as well as on the status of the employer. To find out if you are entitled to be paid when undertaking work experience or an internship, visit the Government’s webpages on the National Minimum Wage (shortlink: goo.gl/dYksXj).
Many internships available within public international law are unpaid, offered as they are by charities or public bodies with limited funds.  Although it may not be possible to take every opportunity, the following represent ways in which previous students have accessed unpaid internships:

  • www.law.ox.ac.uk/opbp/internship – up to £2000, available to enrolled Oxford graduate students (usually in Law).
  • www.asil.org/resources/helton-fellowship-program –   up to $2000 for field work or research on issues around international law, human rights, humanitarian affairs etc. In previous years applications opening in October, but only the first 50 were reviewed. Limited to current law student or recent law graduates.
  • www.hrla.org.uk/bursaries   – up to c.£1000 for work related to human rights law for those who would otherwise lack financial means to do it.
  • anzsil.anu.edu.au/internship.html  –  up to A$2,000 for Australian or New Zealand citizens taking unpaid internships in international organisations or NGOs
  • Research other funds which may be available via the Embassies or High Commissions of the regions you’re going to, your college, Inns of Court (see shortlink: tinyurl.com/p8cvk55)
  • Enter essay competitions (few competitions, but sizeable prize money)
    • The Times Law Award
    • Graham Turnbull Essay Competition
    • Bar Council Law Reform Essay Competition
    • The Lord Roger Essay Prize
    • Access to Justice Student Competition
    • UKSC (UK Supreme Court) Blog Essay Competition
    • Junior Lawyers’ Division Essay Competition (Law Society)
    • UKELA (UK Environmental Law Association) Andrew Lees Essay Prize
    • Five Stone Buildings Essay Competition
    • Marion Simmons QC Essay Competition
  • It may be worth contacting regional alumni offices for the country or region you wish to work in, or perhaps speak to your college alumni office, many are happy to circulate requests for advice which could lead to low-cost accommodation solutions- see www.alumni.ox.ac.uk/page.aspx?pid=3772

FUNDING INTERNSHIPS AND STUDY – OPPORTUNITIES AND IDEAS

  • The Oxford Pro Bono Publico Internship programme – 5-10 x £500 awards for graduates seeking non paid or poorly paid internships in public sector organisations You can see a list of internship ideas and read about where previous interns have worked . Applications are usually made in Hilary term.
  • The Arthur C Helton Fellowship programme. Through this programme the American Society of International Law provides financial assistance to approximately 10 law students and young professionals per year to pursue fieldwork and research on significant issues involving international law, human rights, humanitarian affairs and related areas.  Applicants can be of any nationality but you must be a current law student or have graduated from law school (UG or PG) no earlier than December 2009. This is an annual award so as a guide applications for those wishing to undertake work experience between April-September 2013 were opened on 15/10/2012 and closed on 7/1/2013 – ONLY THE FIRST 50 COMPLETED APPLICATIONS ARE CONSIDERED
  • The Human Rights Lawyers Association offers bursaries to help people through unpaid volunteering roles and internships.  For the 2012-13 academic year the deadline for applications was7th May 2013 and there are usually 10 awards made from a fund of £10,000.
  • Check with your college as you may be able to apply for travel grants or other financial aid for work experience.  If you have joined an Inn of Court, you may also be able to approach them for funding. Some Inns provide additional awards for the pupillage year.
  • The Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law (ANZSIL) provide financial support for people undertaking unpaid internships in international organisations or NGOs. You must be an Australian or New Zealand citizen or permanent resident. The closing dates for 2013 are 19/4/13 and 18/10/13.
  • Check with the Embassies, High Commissions and businesses in the regions that you are going to for further possible sources.
  • Consider entering essay competitions – although there are relatively few, prize money can be substantial! The Times Law Award (essay competition) is open to all students registered with a UK educational institution, deadline is usually the end of November and first prize is c.£3500.  The Bar Council Law Reform Essay Competition is open to pupils, law degree students, GDL and BPTC students in England and Wales and first prize is £4,000. The Law Society’s Graham Turnbill Memorial International Human Rights Essay competition is open to law students, trainee solicitors, etc and first prize is £500. The Junior Lawyers Division of the Law Society will launch in 2011 a 2000 word essay competition for students and trainees.
  • The Inns of Court provide funding for their barristers to undertake internships during or just after the pupillage year. See the Inns’ websites for more details.
  • Hauser Scholars Programme provides funding for 10-14 students to undertake legal masters courses (and also 2 research scholars) at New York University School of Law.

Our briefings on Funding Postgraduate Study in the UK and Funding Postgraduate Study in the USA will also be useful in searching for funding opportunities for further study.

GETTING A JOB

Butterflies with international flags on
There’s no ‘one way’ to work in international law, and so you might like to start by reading about the experiences of those who have already found employment within the field. Consider which profiles align most closely with your interests and ambitions, and what you could learn from their routes in:

ADVERTISED ROLES

  • Check websites for the organisations mentioned throughout this overview regularly – their vacancies may be picked up by websites listed under ‘External Resources’, but many will only actively place opportunities on their own pages.
  • Sign up for email alerts from vacancy websites, including our own CareerConnect.
  • Be aware that some opportunities (such as the YPP at the United Nations) function as ‘competitions’ – different roles and different nationalities are welcomed each time the competition window opens, and those that are successful are placed on a list from which departments can offer employment. Most are employed within a year or so, but being successful in the competition is no guarantee of employment, and from application to contract is rarely a speedy process!
  • As a general rule, ‘traineeships’ are paid work (e.g. the European Court of Human Rights ‘Assistant Lawyers Scheme’, see shortlink: tinyurl.com/oge3rwm) and ‘fellowships’ are often used to describe internships designed for graduates/postgraduates who have completed their studies: these may be paid or unpaid.

UNADVERTISED ROLES

  • Build your network of contacts and your knowledge of topical issues through joining student associations and clubs with an international law focus such as ELSA or Young Legal Aid Lawyers. Take part in mooting events.  Not all jobs in this sector will be advertised, so talking with your tutors and practitioners can help you to find out about both full time and internship positions. As your career develops, the ability to network successfully will be hugely important.
  • It is also often possible to make speculative approaches for work experience – decide which geographical area you would like to work in and the sort of work you are keen on and then contact the relevant organisations that operate there.

EQUALITY & POSITIVE ACTION

A number of major graduate recruiters have policies and processes that are proactive in recruiting graduates from diverse backgrounds. To find out the policies and attitudes of employers that you are interested in, explore their equality and diversity policies and see if they offer ‘Guaranteed Interview Schemes’ (for disabled applicants) or are recognised for their policy by such indicators as ‘Mindful Employer’ or as a ‘Stonewall’s Diversity Champion’.
The UK law protects you from discrimination due to your age, gender, race, religion or beliefs, disability or sexual orientation. For further information on the Equality Act and to find out where and how you are protected, as well as what you need to do if you feel you have been discriminated against, visit the Government’s webpages on discrimination.

OUR RESOURCES

BOOKS

The following books are available to read in our Resource Centre at 56 Banbury Road:

  • EU Competition Law, Ariel Ezrachi
  • Careers in International Law, ed. Salli. A. Swartz
  • A Guide to International Law Careers, Anneke Smit & Christopher Waters
  • International Law, Vaughan Lowe
  • EU Law, Ewan Kirk

TAKE-AWAY MATERIAL

Collect the following material from our Resource Centre at 56 Banbury Road:

  • Pupillages Handbook
  • Targetjobs Courses, Conversion & Vocational Law, published by GTI
  • Targetjobs Law
  • Training Contract & Pupillage Handbook
  • Chambers and Partners Student Guide

ONLINE INTERVIEW FEEDBACK

Our Interview Feedback Database contains hundreds of accounts of interviews, submitted by Oxford students and graduates. The database can be searched by sector and by organisation.
OXFORD CAREERS NETWORK (OCN)

The OCN on CareerConnect is a database of over 1000 Oxford alumni volunteer mentors who are willing to be contacted about their career.  Read their case studies for behind-the-scenes insights into an organisation or occupation, and contact them for more advice and information.

External Resources

DIRECTORIES OF FIRMS AND ORGANISATIONS

  • www.law.ox.ac.uk/opbp/links – A useful list of public law bodies and organisations from Oxford’s own Pro Bono Publico at the Faculty of Law.
  • www.chambersandpartners.com – Research firms and rankings within preferred practice areas (e.g. ‘public international law’)
  • www.legal500.com – Research firms within preferred practice areas (e.g. ‘civil liberties and human rights’ – under ‘public law’)
  • www.hg.org/practiceareas.html – A useful summary of key firms and other organisations around 260 practice areas

SECTOR VACANCIES

Please see the sites mentioned in the work experience list of this briefing and details of pupillages and training contracts in the Law Society’s “Training Contract and Pupillage Handbook”. Free copies of this are available at the Law Fair and in the Careers Service.
General legal job boards (such as Legal Week, The Lawyer, Law Society Gazette Jobs) do occasionally carry public international roles, but they’re rare here. It’s more common to see roles listed directly on organisation websites. Use the organisations and associations mentioned here to find post-qualification and other supporting roles.

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

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