Patents and Related Work

The patent profession often appeals to those who wish to remain involved with cutting-edge science, but who are not attracted to a research role. A patent (pronounced ‘pat-tent’ not ‘pay-tent’) gives legal protection to a technical invention (product or process) for 20 years. The invention has to be novel and clearly defined. The inventor or, more commonly, their patent attorney describes the invention in the form of a patent application, which is examined for clarity and originality by the appropriate patent office before being granted a licence or patent. The Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys (CIPA) is the professional and examining body for patent attorneys in the United Kingdom.

Intellectual property (IP) careers includes not only patent attorneys but also other roles such as IP solicitors, IP barristers and trade mark attorneys; you can explore the full range of IP roles by listening to the Summer of IP introductory events/talks (2023) run by IP Inclusive.

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There are two main areas in which to practise as a patent attorney. First, as part of the licensing bodies (the UK Intellectual Property Office, which is in effect part of the UK Civil Service, and the European Patent Office) and secondly, as an intermediary (patent attorneys in private practice or industry, who come between the ‘inventors’ and the licensing bodies).

  • The UK Intellectual Property Office, which is based in Newport, South Wales, usually recruits a few trainees each year; the posts are advertised on their website.
  • The European Patent Office is based in Munich with branches in The Hague and Berlin. The European Patent Office typically recruits a few Assistant Examiners each year and vacancies are usually advertised on their website.
  • Firms of patent attorneys. These are often described as the ‘private practice’ section of the patent agents’ profession and about 80% of the 1,500 UK-registered patent attorneys work in this area. Most years there are around 30-40 vacancies for trainee patent attorneys. The Intellectual Property Regulation Board (IPReg) has a Register of Patent Attorneys which is a searchable database of private practice firms.
  • Patent departments in industrial companies. These are usually fairly small departments within large companies that have a substantial investment in research. The ‘in-house’ patent attorney deals with the patent work arising from that company only. In such departments there are only a small number of vacancies a year and these are more likely to be for qualified patent attorneys rather than for trainees. In the Civil Service and its agencies these ‘in-house’ patent attorneys are called Patent Officers.

Typically trainee patent attorneys sit two sets of exams: the first to become a Registered Patent Attorney in the UK and the second to become a European Patent Attorney. Training for these is usually a combination of in-house preparation and a series of centralised lectures. Many firms encourage their trainees to spend several months in full-time study on relevant university courses. Training typically takes four to five years.

Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering and Physics are particularly relevant for a career in patent work. Other subjects which are sometimes sought after include: Biological Sciences (especially molecular biology/genetic engineering and a higher degree is advantageous), Computer Science and Materials Science. There are no recommended preparatory postgraduate courses.

In the case of the European Patent Office, the language requirement puts many people off applying. Ask yourself how difficult it would really be to get your languages up to the necessary standard if, in other respects, you are keen. For private practice, languages can be useful (particularly German) but are not a pre-requisite.


Skills needed

  • A fascination for ‘how things work’. If you are the type of person who takes things to pieces just to find out how they work, then this could be the profession for you.
  • Communication skills, particularly in writing, are of key importance. Many firms include a written exercise as part of their selection process.

Getting experience

It can be difficult to obtain work experience in this field, but talking to one or two patent attorneys or examiners and visiting a firm of patent attorneys before applying for jobs will increase your chances. A small number of patent firms offer short summer vacation schemes (eg Boult Wade Tennant, Carpmaels & Ransford, Dehns); check individual firm’s websites for more information. During Michaelmas Term a number of patent firms attend the Science, Engineering and Technology Fair and some also organise open days which give an excellent insight into what the work is really like – check our events on CareerConnect for more information.

If you do manage to arrange work experience, there is often confusion about whether you should be paid to do an internship or work experience. It will depend on your arrangement with the employer as well as on the status of the employer. To find out if you are entitled to be paid when undertaking work experience or an internship, visit the Government’s webpages on the National Minimum Wage.

Competition for these jobs is not as fierce as the small number of vacancies might suggest. Oxbridge graduates make up about 65% of successful applicants. Whilst many of the large firms tell us about their vacancies, most firms will advertise current vacancies for trainee patent attorneys through IP Careers. Firms may also advertise in graduate directories or in New Scientist. Application is usually by way of a CV and cover letter.

You may find it helpful to look at some patents on the UK Intellectual Property Office website.

Recruiters are keen to have a diverse workforce, and many will have policies and processes that are proactive in recruiting students and graduates from diverse backgrounds. An increasing number of recruiters are offering traineeships, internships and insight events that are aimed at specific groups and many are being recognised for their approach to being inclusive employers.

Try the following to discover more about the policies and attitudes of the recruiters that you are interested in:

The UK Equality Act 2010 has a number of protected characteristics to prevent discrimination due to your age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or beliefs, sex or sexual orientation. For further information on the Equality Act 2010 and to find out where and how you are protected, and what to do if you feel you have been discriminated against, visit the Equality and Human Rights Commission’s webpage on the Equality Act and the Government’s webpages on discrimination.

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