Assessment Centres

Assessment centres are considered by many employers to be the fairest and most accurate method of selecting staff, because they give different selectors a chance to see candidates over a longer period of time, and in a wider range of situations, than is possible in a single interview. It gives them the opportunity to see what you can do, rather than what you say you can do, in a variety of situations. Selectors at assessment centres will measure you against a series of competencies that are relevant to the organisation and each activity will be carefully designed to assess one or more of these areas.

The length of assessment centres can vary, but in person they typically last from half to a whole day. If they are longer, the recruiter should organise accommodation and meals. The types of activities vary according to the employers, but can include aptitude tests, personality questionnaires, business games, case studies, group discussions, presentations, one-to-one interviews, socialising and meeting current employees. Depending on their size, organisations are likely to run a number of assessment centres, and will invite a set number of candidates to each.

It is worth remembering that you are usually being assessed against specific competencies and not against the other candidates. In organisations making multiple hires, it is not unheard of for every candidate from one assessment centre to be selected and nobody from another. Rather than trying to compete with other candidates, make sure that you demonstrate the qualities that the organisation has highlighted as important to them.

Once you have been invited to an assessment centre, make sure that you fully understand the structure beforehand. For example, will there be interviews, group exercises, presentations and so on? If you don’t have this information, contact the recruiter to find out, as you will need it to prepare properly.

Virtual assessment centres

Assessment centres are usually held either on company premises or in a nearby location. However, over the last few years, due to Covid-19, many employers have added virtual assessment centres as part of their recruitment process. For many, the main focus for the virtual event will be the interview and presentation. While everyone is becoming much more used to the technology of things like ‘breakout rooms’ on Zoom, group exercises may be more difficult to run, so could be dropped or replaced with other exercises; alternatively the skills that would be tested in a group setting may be added to interview questions.

Recruiters should give you lots of information and support if they’re going to run a virtual event, and they may run a test event as well to ensure that everyone’s tech is working and that, as far as possible, no one is disadvantaged. Make sure you take every opportunity to engage with test events even if you feel that you’re conversant with the technology – it shows that you’re willing, and helps you avoid unforeseen glitches on the day.

You can find more information online, for example:

  • Sten10 is one of the companies which runs assessment centres, and they have some useful information about virtual assessment centres on the Sten10 blog. You could look for similar resources on other assessment centre providers' websites.
  • The website RateMyPlacement has information about preparation for virtual events.
  • Our own pages on telephone and video interviews may be useful.
  • See our advice on Psychometric Testing for free access to JobTestPrep, which also includes guidance and practice materials for assessment centre group exercises, case studies and e-tray exercises.
  • There’s also some information from an employer survey on virtual interviews on the Resumego website.
  • TargetJobs has a great page on virtual assessment centres.

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A combination of the following activities may be used:

Psychometric and aptitude tests

These are timed (often multiple choice) tests, taken under examination conditions, and designed to measure your intellectual capability for thinking and reasoning. The tests will be carefully designed for the role you have applied to and although challenging, will not usually depend on any prior knowledge or experience. Firms will sometimes provide links to sample questions, or you can search for some online. Even if the firm doesn't provide you with sample questions you should still be able to find other practice tests online that assess the same or similar competencies (look at our page on psychometric tests to find out how to access the ones that the Careers Services subscribes to). 

Prior to sitting a test try to ensure you:

  • Practice beforehand, in similar conditions to those you will face on the assessment day e.g. time yourself, and with numerical tests practice without using a calculator
  • On the day of the test:
    • pay careful attention to the instructions and ask for clarification if you don't understand them;
    • be aware of the time limit and work as quickly and accurately as you can.

For more information and tips, see our webpage on psychometric tests.

In-tray / e-tray exercises

This exercise is usually carried out on a computer, but may be on paper. You will have access to an email inbox where messages, reports and telephone queries will appear. You will be expected to take decisions on each item: deciding priorities, drafting replies, delegating tasks, recommending action to superiors, and so on. The exercise is designed to test how you handle complex information within a limited time period, so organisations will be looking to see how you perform under pressure. Some organisations will also want to know why you have made certain decisions and may ask you to annotate items or discuss your actions in a follow-up discussion.

Case studies

In this exercise you will usually be set a task/problem that is reflective of the type of work you would be expected to do if you were to join the firm. The case study can take place within a range of different contexts, e.g. an interview, a group exercise, presentation or as a written exercise. You may be told, or be able to find out, what format it will take.

In this exercise you are being tested on your ability to analyse information, to think clearly and logically, to work under time pressure, to exercise your judgement and to express yourself on paper or verbally (see 'Presentations' below). Case studies are often designed so there isn't one obvious right answer or 'correct' response. The selectors will be looking to see how you worked to come to your solution / decision and that you can justify your recommendations. Each organisation will develop case studies that reflect the type of work that they do. See our webpages for further information on Consulting Case Studies and Legal Case Studies


Interviews that take place as part of an assessment centre can vary; these could be competency based or technical, with one interviewer or a panel. These are likely to be much more in-depth than any interviews you experienced during the first stages of selection, and could be with someone from the department/division to which you are applying. Interviewers may take the opportunity to probe further on the answers you gave at an earlier interview, so reflect back and think about answers you have previously given. Questions may also refer back to other assessment centre activities you have taken part in or to aptitude test results. Be prepared to be challenged on your answers, but keep calm, consider your answers, and avoid being defensive. You may be asked many of the same questions that you were asked previously. Don't assume that your interviewer is familiar with the answers you gave at that stage; treat this subsequent discussion independently. See our interview webpages for further information.

Information sessions

These provide you with more information about the organisation and the job roles available. Listen carefully, as such information is likely to be more up-to-date than your previous research and may be useful for subsequent interviews. If you are unclear about anything - ask. This is also a great opportunity to really clarify whether this organisation or job is for you.

Social events

These give you the opportunity to meet a variety of people – including other candidates, the selectors, recent graduates, and senior management. They are excellent opportunities for you to find out more about the organisation, and to ask questions in an informal setting. Although these events may be billed as informal and not a part of the assessment process, you should still behave in a way that will reflect well on you.

You may be asked to give a short presentation to the other candidates and/or the selectors at your assessment centre on a subject of your choice or one chosen by the employer. This could be prepared in advance or you may be given time to prepare it on the day - whatever the case, make sure that you follow their instructions and advice on the presentation's content, timing, structure and so on. It's very important to think of your potential audience and ensure that they will understand the topic and your arguments. Try to avoid talking about anything either too commonplace or too technical, and remember that you could be asked supplementary questions, so try to learn as much about your subject as you possibly can. Although the content of the presentation may be relevant to the role you have applied for, the organisation will also be assessing whether you can structure a talk and communicate information effectively.


  • You could plan your presentation along the following "A-B-C" lines:
    • A - Introduction - Bullet point what you're going to tell cover in your presentation
    • B - Content - tell them 
    • C - Summary - tell them what you've told them and the key take away points. 
  • Limit your points to maybe three to six key messages, depending on the subject matter and time allowed.
  • Pitch the level of your talk at your audience and keep it clear.
  • Support your ideas and themes with (brief) anecdotes, examples, statistics and facts.
  • Consider your timing, and note how long each part of your presentation should take.
  • Practice makes perfect. If you are able to rehearse your actual presentation then do - and ask a friend to watch you, or video yourself so you can watch it back. If you are going to have to prepare a presentation on the day, then practice this skill in advance with some relevant topics. In either case, time yourself when you rehearse; it can be really helpful to know what it feels like to talk for one minute or five minutes, and will help you keep to time on the day. 

The presentation

  • Aim for a conversational delivery and avoid memorising, or reading from a full script of notes.
  • Talk to the group – not at it.
  • Speak clearly, don't gabble or mumble, and make sure that you can be heard by all of the audience. If you have a chance beforehand, it can be helpful to video yourself - or at least make an audio recording - so that you can assess how you look, sound and come across. 
  • Keep to time. Bear in mind that your nerves can speed you up or slow you down on the day.
  • Try to make eye contact with all members of the group to which you are presenting. If you are presenting to a large audience you don't have to make eye contact with each individual person, but do ensure that you address the different sections of the audience.
  • Be aware of your body language and don't fidget as you talk. Stand with your legs about hip-width apart - don't cross your legs as you may wobble or look too casual.
  • Flipcharts and PowerPoint slides can greatly enhance your presentation, but should be used with care - let them illustrate rather than repeat what you are saying. Make sure you've taken into account any technical requirements (document format, size etc). 
  • Images are generally more effective than words.
  • Don't overcrowd your visual aids - you want your audience to be listening to you, not reading!
  • Avoid just reading your visual aids out loud to your audience.


At the end of your presentation, it's often a good idea to ask if the audience have any questions. The following mnemonic "TRACT" could be helpful when you frame your answers:

  • Thank the questioner
  • Repeat the question for the rest of the audience (clarify at this point if you are unsure of what you are being asked)
  • Answer the question to the group
  • Check with the questioner that they are satisfied
  • Thank them again

Useful video resource

Most graduate jobs will involve working with other people in some way and most assessment centres include a group or teamwork exercise. Whether you have to complete a practical task or take part in a discussion, the selectors will be looking for your ability to work well with the group. It is important to remember that good team work is not necessarily about getting your own ideas taken forward, but also listening to, acknowledging, encouraging and following through the ideas of others in the group.

There are some basic rules to follow in this type of exercise:

  • Get a good grasp of any information you are given, but don't waste time on minute details.
  • In light of the information given, decide your objectives and priorities, then make a plan and follow it. This will ensure the group does not stray away from the original brief.
  • Be assertive and persuasive, but also diplomatic – be tactful even when faced with an idea you do not wholly agree with. Try to speak with conviction about your ideas, but don't be dogmatic.
  • Listen to what everyone else has to say and try to get the best contribution from everyone in the group. Don't assume that shy or quiet members have nothing to contribute. Show your facilitation skills - and your kindness - by including them in the discussion.
  • Find the balance between taking your ideas forward and helping the group to complete the task constructively.
  • Make sure the group keeps to their objective and time limits.
  • Remember that how you work together is being assessed as much as the solution or answer you come up with, if not more so.
  • Keep your cool and don't panic!

Discussions and role plays

You may be asked to take part in a role-playing exercise where you will be given a briefing pack and asked to play the part of a particular person. The selectors will be assessing your individual contribution to the discussion/role play, your verbal communication and interpersonal skills. You are usually given some time to read the background information; try to preempt some of the possible challenges you may face and think of how you might respond. Some scenarios for role plays can include: defending a decision you made to a client or more senior member of the team; dealing with an angry client or customer; or negotiating with a supplier.

Practical tasks

Occasionally for roles which require a specific technical skill, you may be asked as a group to use unfamiliar equipment or materials to make or build something. The selectors are often as interested in how the group interacts as in the quality of the finished product, but they will also be assessing your planning and problem-solving skills and the creativity of your individual ideas. As with any group activity, get involved – even if you are unsure about the relevance of the task.

  • Make sure you know what exercises/tests you will be be expected to complete and prepare thoroughly for them - ask the recruiter in advance if you're not sure what the structure of the day(s) will be.
  • Don't worry if you think that you have performed badly in a particular exercise in the assessment centre. It is more than likely that you will have the chance to compensate in other exercises.
  • Remember, the aim is to perform to the best of your abilities (not to compete with the other candidates).
  • If you are unsuccessful, remember to ask for feedback; most firms will give you feedback on your performance at the assessment centre stage and this will help to enhance your performance in the future.
  • If after receiving your feedback, you are still unsure about how to improve your future performance in assessment centres, book an appointment to speak to a careers adviser who may be able to provide additional tips and suggestions.

Related pages

  • The advice given in our Interviews webpages may also be useful if you are preparing to attend an assessment centre.
  • You can also find relevant information and advice on the Telephone and Video Interviews page. 
  • Our briefing on Psychometric Testing includes details of how to get free access to JobTestPrep, a website that provides practice materials not only for online tests but also for assessment centre group exercises, case studies and e-tray exercises.
  • There are also specific pages about legal and consulting case study interviews.


You may wish to attend some of the skills programmes, workshops or events that we run in at the Careers Service, particularly in Michaelmas and Hilary terms. We regularly run specific events to help you to prepare for assessment centres - take a look at our term calendar on CareerConnect to find out more.

Video resource

Watch the FT video on How to win at group assessments featuring the Oxford University Careers Service Director and Careers Adviser, Jonathan Black

More information

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