Organisations in the energy industry range from huge multinational corporations to small organisations consisting of a handful of people developing specialist technology. Many large organisations operate graduate training schemes, most commonly in the oil and gas industry and the power generation sector. Other parts of the industry are dominated by small to medium enterprises (SMEs), for example in renewables technology companies, smart-metering technologies and low-carbon specialists.
Roles for engineers, scientists, data scientists and IT specialists are most abundant, but opportunities also exist in many commercial roles, and in areas such as policy, regulation and law.
Energy industry sectors include:
Global and regional energy companies
Many have an international presence and traditionally focus on discovering and extracting oil and gas (upstream business), refining it into commercial products and distributing it to customers (downstream business). Oilfield service companies, such as Schlumberger and Halliburton, provide specialist services to oil companies to aid the exploration and extraction of oil but do not directly extract oil and gas themselves. In the UK much of the oil/gas industry is based around Aberdeen and Great Yarmouth. Many energy companies are now also investing heavily in renewables.
Power generators, distributors and suppliers
Many of the big players in the energy sector use a range of fuel sources (oil, gas, coal, nuclear and renewables) to generate electricity for distribution to homes and industry. These companies have evolved from the energy utilities companies of the past. Most now operate nationally and even internationally. Smaller companies may focus on one locality or on one source of energy such as a network of solar farms.
Energy consultancies and market analysts
Consultancies may focus on the energy sector as one aspect of a broader management consultancy business, or as a boutique firm specialising entirely in energy. Their scope could include advising on investment support for mergers and acquisitions or optimising portfolios, developing and advising on hedging strategies in energy markets, advising government on the costs and benefits of different energy policies, providing market intelligence, modelling/optimising energy demand forecasting, pricing analysis and more. See the Careers Service guide to management consultancy for more information.
Investment firms specialising in energy
Specialist financial companies dealing with investment, private equity, business and development, buying and selling assets such as wind or solar farms, management of commercial contracts etc specific to the energy industry. See the Careers Service guide to banking and investment for more information
The commodities markets include power, coal, CO2 certificates and oil. Trading takes place within stand-alone specialist firms and divisions of major energy companies. Activities include managing investment portfolios, market analysis and (financial) product development. See the Careers Service guide to banking and investment for more information on careers in trading.
Energy services, including sustainability consultancies
Organisations responsible for developing and implementing clean energy initiative and improving energy efficiencies. Such services could be delivered from an in-house team within a company looking at sustainability across a business or other organisation such as a university, or within local councils advising on fuel poverty, energy efficiency, community energy initiatives or local policy. Some consultancies also exist.
Energy policy and regulation
Opportunities to work on policy and regulation relating to energy exist in national government, local government, think tanks and with regulatory bodies such as Ofgem in the UK.
Large energy companies will often employ teams of legal experts in-house to advise on contracts and compliance with energy and emissions regulations. Law firms may also develop specialisms in energy. See the Career Service information on becoming a solicitor for more information.